Jet Airplane Systems and Maintenance

All FAA-certificated jet airplanes are certificated under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25, which contains the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. The FAA-certificated jet airplane is a highly sophisticated machine with proven levels of performance and guaranteed safety margins. The jet airplane’s performance and safety margins can only be realized, however, if the airplane is operated in strict compliance with the procedures and limitations contained in the FAA-approved AFM for the particular airplane. Furthermore, in accordance with 14 CFR part 91, section 91.213(a), a turbine-powered airplane does not qualify to takeoff with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless, among other requirements, an approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL) exists for that aircraft, and the aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations contained in the MEL (section 91.213(a)(5)).

Minimum Equipment List

The MEL serves as a reference guide for dispatchers and pilots to determine whether takeoff of an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment is authorized under the provisions of applicable regulatory requirements.

The operator models the MEL after the FAA’s Master MEL (MMEL) for each type of aircraft and the Administrator approves the MEL before its implementation. The MEL includes a “General” section, comprised of definitions, general policies, as well as operational procedures for flight crews and maintenance personnel. Each aircraft component addressed in the MEL is listed in an alphabetical index for quick reference. A table of contents further divides the manual in different chapters, each numbered for its corresponding aircraft system designation (i.e., the electrical system, also designated as system number 24, would be found in chapter 24 of the MEL).

Pilots may defer repair of items on those aircraft systems and components allowed by the approved MEL. Per 14 CFR part 91, section 91.213(a)(3)(ii), an MEL must provide for the operation of the aircraft with the instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition. If particular items do not allow for safe operation, they do not appear on the MEL and takeoff is not authorized until the item is adequately repaired or replaced (section 91.213(a)). In cases where repairs may temporarily be deferred, operation or dispatch of an aircraft whose systems have been impaired is often subject to limitations or other conditional requirements explicitly stated in the MEL. Such conditional requirements may be of an operational nature, a mechanical nature, or both.

Mechanical conditions outlined in the MEL may require precautionary pre-flight checks, partial repairs prior to departure, or the isolation of selected elements of the deficient aircraft system (or related interacting systems), as well as the securing of other system components to avoid further degradation in flight. The MEL may contain either a step-by-step description of required partial maintenance actions or a list of numerical references to the Maintenance Procedures Manual (MPM) where each corrective procedure is explained in detail. Procedures performed to ensure the aircraft can be safely operated are categorized as either pperations procedures or maintenance procedures. The MEL will denote which by indicating an “O” or an “M” as appropriate.

If operational and mechanical conditions can be met, an authorized person makes an entry in the aircraft MEL Deferral Record and issues a temporary placard. This authorizes the operation for a limited time before permanent repairs take place. The placard is affixed by maintenance personnel or the flight crew onto or next to the instrument or control mechanism to remind the flight crew of any limitations.

The MEL only applies while the aircraft sits on the ground awaiting departure or takeoff. It is essentially a dispatching reference tool used in support of all applicable Federal Aviation Regulations. If dispatchers are not required by the operator’s certificate, flight crews still need to refer to the MEL before dispatching themselves to ensure that the flight is planned and conducted within the operating limits set forth in the MEL. Once the aircraft leaves the ground, any mechanical failures should be addressed using the appropriate checklists and approved AFM, not the MEL. Although a pilot may refer to the MEL for background information and documentation, actions in flight should be based strictly on instructions provided by the AFM (i.e., Abnormal or Emergency sections).

Configuration Deviation List

A Configuration Deviation List (CDL) is used in the same manner as an MEL but it differs in that it addresses missing external parts of the aircraft rather than failing internal systems and their constituent parts. They typically include elements, such as service doors, power receptacle doors, slat track doors, landing gear doors, APU ram air doors, flaps fairings, nose-wheel spray deflectors, position light lens covers, slat segment seals, static dischargers, etc.

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