Instrument Flying

This Instrument Flying section is designed for use by instrument flight instructors and pilots preparing for instrument rating tests. Instructors may find this section a valuable training aid as it includes basic reference material for knowledge testing and instrument flight training. Other Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) publications should be consulted for more detailed information on related topics.

This section conforms to pilot training and certification concepts established by the FAA. There are different ways of teaching, as well as performing, flight procedures and maneuvers and many variations in the explanations of aerodynamic theories and principles. This section adopts selected methods and concepts for instrument flying. The discussion and explanations reflect the most commonly used practices and principles.

All of the aeronautical knowledge and skills required to operate in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) are detailed. Sections are dedicated to human and aerodynamic factors affecting instrument flight, the flight instruments, attitude instrument flying for airplanes, basic flight maneuvers used in IMC, attitude instrument flying for helicopters, navigation systems, the National Airspace System (NAS), the air traffic control (ATC) system, instrument flight rules (IFR) flight procedures, and IFR emergencies.

1. The National Airspace System


2. The Air Traffic Control System


3. Human Factors


4. Aerodynamic Factors


5. Flight Instruments


6. Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying


7. Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers


8. Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying


9. Navigation Systems


10. IFR Flight


11. Emergency Operations