Hydroplaning is a condition that can exist when an airplane has landed on a runway surface contaminated with standing water, slush, and/or wet snow. Hydroplaning can have serious adverse effects on ground controllability and braking efficiency. The three basic types of hydroplaning are dynamic hydroplaning, reverted rubber hydroplaning, and viscous hydroplaning. Any one of the three can render an airplane partially or totally uncontrollable anytime during the landing roll.
Dynamic hydroplaning is a relatively high-speed phenomenon that occurs when there is a film of water on the runway that is at least one-tenth of an inch deep. As the speed of the airplane and the depth of the water increase, the water layer builds up an increasing resistance to displacement, resulting in the formation of a wedge of water beneath the tire. At some speed, termed the hydroplaning speed (Vp), the water pressure equals the weight of the airplane, and the tire is lifted off the runway surface. In this condition, the tires no longer contribute to directional control and braking action is nil.
Dynamic hydroplaning is related to tire inflation pressure. Data obtained during hydroplaning tests have shown the minimum dynamic hydroplaning speed (Vp) of a tire to be 8.6 times the square root of the tire pressure in pounds per square inch (PSI). For an airplane with a main tire pressure of 24 pounds, the calculated hydroplaning speed would be approximately 42 knots. It is important to note that the calculated speed referred to above is for the start of dynamic hydroplaning. Once hydroplaning has started, it may persist to a significantly slower speed depending on the type being experienced.
Reverted Rubber Hydroplaning
Reverted rubber (steam) hydroplaning occurs during heavy braking that results in a prolonged locked-wheel skid. Only a thin film of water on the runway is required to facilitate this type of hydroplaning. The tire skidding generates enough heat to cause the rubber in contact with the runway to revert to its original uncured state. The reverted rubber acts as a seal between the tire and the runway and delays water exit from the tire footprint area. The water heats and is converted to steam, which supports the tire off the runway.
Reverted rubber hydroplaning frequently follows an encounter with dynamic hydroplaning, during which time the pilot may have the brakes locked in an attempt to slow the airplane. Eventually the airplane slows enough to where the tires make contact with the runway surface and the airplane begins to skid. The remedy for this type of hydroplane is to release the brakes and allow the wheels to spin up and apply moderate braking. Reverted rubber hydroplaning is insidious in that the pilot may not know when it begins, and it can persist to very slow ground speeds (20 knots or less).
Viscous hydroplaning is due to the viscous properties of water. A thin film of fluid no more than one thousandth of an inch in depth is all that is needed. The tire cannot penetrate the fluid and the tire rolls on top of the film. This can occur at a much lower speed than dynamic hydroplane, but requires a smooth or smooth acting surface, such as asphalt or a touchdown area coated with the accumulated rubber of past landings. Such a surface can have the same friction coefficient as wet ice.
When confronted with the possibility of hydroplaning, it is best to land on a grooved runway (if available). Touchdown speed should be as slow as possible consistent with safety. After the nose wheel is lowered to the runway, moderate braking is applied. If deceleration is not detected and hydroplaning is suspected, raise the nose and use aerodynamic drag to decelerate to a point where the brakes do become effective.
Proper braking technique is essential. The brakes are applied firmly until reaching a point just short of a skid. At the first sign of a skid, release brake pressure and allow the wheels to spin up. Directional control is maintained as far as possible with the rudder. Remember that in a crosswind, if hydroplaning occurs, the crosswind causes the airplane to simultaneously weathervane into the wind, as well as slide downwind.
Short-Field Approach and Landing
Soft-Field Approach and Landing
Power-Off Accuracy Approaches
Emergency Approaches and Landings (Simulated)
Faulty Approaches and Landings (Part 1)
Faulty Approaches and Landings (Part 2)